Naila :]

Naila :]

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Natural Selection

Who is Charles Darwin and what did he study?
  Charles Darwin is the person that came up with the theory 'natural selection'. He studied medicine, theology, anatomy, geology, and classification.

What is natural selection?

  Natural selection is the process of when a species becomes more specialized to suit their environments.


Environmental pressures animals face:
Deforestation, Ice melting in the Arctic, Pollution, Disposal of household wastes, Storm water (often contaminated with sewage and gas/oil from roadways).

Examples of variations:
different skin color, skin pattern, height, fur color, feet/paws/hands size, nose shape, neck length, eyelashes length, thick or thin coats(of fur).

What does survival of the fittest mean?

   Natural selection conceived of as a struggle for life in which only those organisms best adapted to existing conditions are able to survive and reproduce.

1. Giraffe:

   a. environmental pressure- not long enough necks to reach the leaves from trees for food
   b. variation- skin patterns


2. Rabbit:

   a. environmental pressure- not being able to find food around them
   b. variation- fur colors



3. Cactus:

   a.environmental pressures- lack of water
   b. variation- thickness of thorns





4. Shark:
   a. environmental pressure- being hunted by the human race
   b. variation- different types of shark teeth
Describing 5 senses the chimpanzees have:
1. Sight- required to spot predators, to run away from being eaten
2. Hearing-  run away from well camouflaged predators
3. Smell- to distinguish foods from poisonous and safe foods 
4. Touch- to sense objects
5. Taste- touch and taste go together

Those chimpanzees who have better eye-sight will be able to notice faster whenever there are predators around. Those with better hearing will be able to run away from the well-camouflaged predators. Those with better smell ability, will be able to distinguish the good from the bad foods. Which these will end up to live longer, enough to reproduce, enough to pass on these traits.


Polar Bears:
Polar bears live along shores and on sea ice in the icy arctic. It's habitat is at a seal's breathing hole in the ice. They feed primarily on seals.
 Physical features that help them survive include- their white fur allows them to camouflage with the ice or the snow. Their ability to swim helps them catch prey that is underneath  the ice. Paw pads help prevent them from slipping on the ice. To swim, they use their large front paws to propel themselves through the water and their back legs to steer.

Web Surfing Science- Dichotomous Keys

Dichotomous Keys-

Why would you use a dichotomous key?
   To assist people with the identification of all types of living things.

What does dichotomous mean?
   The word dichotomous comes from dichotomy meaning branching, contrasting or opposite ideas. 

How does a dichotomous key work?
   A dichotomous key gives you a series of steps with a set of choices which are opposite or contrasting in nature that are initially very general and become more specific as one proceeds through the steps. By analyzing the physical characteristics of the object/organism in question and using the steps and choices given in the key, the observer can identify an object/organism based upon established traits.

What is the first step in making a dichotomous key?
   Start by observing the group of things to be used in the key.

What is the second step?
   List the most general traits that can be used to divide the organisms into categories.

How many choices should one have at each step decision point of the key?
   2 choices 

Identifying Pond Organisms-

Organism 1: Fingernail Clam
Organism 2: Tadpole
Organism 3: Pouch snail 

Identifying a Fish-

Fish:

1. band-tail puffer
2. spotted goat fish
3. glassy sweeper
4. squirrel fish
5. spotted eagle ray
6. peacock flounder
7. spotted moray eel
8. glass-eye snapper
9. trumpet fish

Friday, January 18, 2013

Ecosystems




biodiversity helps by creating more and keeping food in their bodies, and helps our percentage of biodiversity grow by the animals being able to live and reproduce faster.

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Dichotomous Keys

1. Dichotomous Key:
     A reference tool where a series of choices between alternative characters leads progressively to the identification of the species.




2. Taxonomy:
     The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships.




3. Binomial Classification:
     The scientific naming of species whereby each species receives a Latin or Latinized name of two parts, the first indicating the genus and the second being the specific epithet.

4. Genus:
      A taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics.
     

5. Species -
     A class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind.












Friday, January 11, 2013

Uniform or Diverse Offspring

1. What is uniform offspring?

In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that genetically identical to itself. These offspring are  produced by mitosis. Uniform = Same




2. Which type of reproduction produces uniform offspring?

Asexual reproduction

3. What is diverse offspring?
 
Diverse offspring is whenever an offspring is produced sexually and has been passed some of the genes of its parents. It won't look exactly like its parents, but it will have some similarities. In sexual reproduction, two individuals produce offspring that have genetic characteristics from both parents. Diverse = Different



4. What type of reproduction produces diverse offspring?

Sexual reproduction

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Sexual Reproduction



This is an example of sexual reproduction because for the flower to grow, and reproduce, it needs pollen. To a flower, pollen is just like a sperm, it is what fertilizes. Whenever a bee wants food, it visits a flower, which then collects pollen from the stamen in a flower. The pistil from the flower is what collects the pollen from a bee that had collected pollen. Then the ovule gets fertilized and turns into a seed.

Asexual Reproduction

What is asexual reproduction?

Whenever something is reproduced without any physical interaction.



Budding is whenever you become an independent creature and start growing, which is natural.  

This picture is an example of asexual reproduction because you can clearly see that the plants/vegetables are growing buds. It's just making copies of itself, so it is using the same DNA and copying itself.






Asexual offspring only has one parent, while sexual offspring have two parents. To be an asexual offspring, you will be coming from one living thing, without any relations. To be a sexual offspring, you will be born from two parents, which they have sex to be able to have you.



Wednesday, January 9, 2013

Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells:

Prokaryotic cells are a group of organisms whose cells lack a cell nucleus.





Eukaryotic Cells:

A eukaryotic is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. It has a nucleus, where genetic material is contained, and membrane bound organelles.



Heredity




1. Kim~ eye shape- mom, skin- dad, lips- mom, nose- mom, hair color- mom, eye color- dad, ears- mother, eyebrows, mother.

2. Kourtney~ eye color- dad, face shape- dad, hair color- mother, nose shape- mom, ears- mother, lips- dad,  eyebrows- mother.

3. Khloe~ eye shape- mother, nose- mother, hair color- dad, lips- dad, eye color- mother, face structure- mother, eyebrows- father.

4. Robert Jr.~ eye shape- father, eye color- father, hair color- mother, ears- father, nose- father, eyebrows- father, face structure- mother, lips- mama

5. Mason~ eye shape- scott, eye color- kourtney, skin color- scott, hair color- scott, eyebrows- kourtney, nose- kourtney, lips- kourtney

6. Penelope- hair color- scott, eye color- scott, eye shape- kourtney, skin color- scott, lips- scott, nose- kourtney, ears- scott, eyebrows- kourtney

List of inherited genes:
1) eye color
2) hair color
3) lips
4) skin
5) face structure
6) noses
7) eyebrows
8) ears

Heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.

How does one generation pass instructions to the next?
    Through your DNA.