Naila :]

Naila :]

Thursday, May 30, 2013

End of course Exam Review

Unit 1: Physics in the Real World

Lab Safety Rules
1. List 5 lab safety rules.
always wear safety gloves
put hair up
clean up workspace
wear safety goggles
do not touch chemicals unless told so

2. What is an MSDS and what is it used for?
to know what to do incase you touch it, to know what kind of damage it can cause, to protect you and inform you.

*Label the equipment on the handout.

Scientific Method
3. List the steps of the scientific method.

  • Ask a Question
  • Do Background Research
  • Construct a Hypothesis
  • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
  • Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
  • Communicate Your Results

Forces & Motion
4. What is force? energy
5. What is motion?The action or process of moving or being moved.
6. What is the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces?
balanced, is when there is an equal number of forces on each side. Unbalanced is when there is an unequal force on the sides.
7. How can the speed of an object be measured? by knowing how long you have been driving, how long the distance is, and you can calculate speed by ourself.

Potential & Kinetic Energy

8. How is potential energy converted into kinetic energy?by motion
9. How do pendulums demonstrate potential and kinetic energy? it changes after the lowest point

10. How would you define work? by how much an object is being moved
11. How can work be measured? by newtons
12. How do simple machines make work easier? by making the distance string longer and more complicated so that it does all the work instead of us having to do it all.
13. How are plants affected by gravity?
they grow going up, instead of going down like gravity should work, so it has an opposite affect
14. What is the relationship between force and work? force is what is needed to make work
15. How does friction affect work? it makes it slide when you push so that it doesn't go flying into the air..

Energy Transfers in Organisms
16. How do organisms transform chemical energy in the food they eat into other forms of energy? they use photosynthesis
17. What energy transformations take place before, during and after, digestion? chemical transformations
18. How do muscles of an organism rely on chemical energy to produce motion? because it changes it into energy which they need to produce the energy needed.

Unit 2: Earth/Space Systems

Catastrophic Events
19. How do scientists classify the severity and type of impact on ecosystems by floods, tornadoes and hurricanes?
with numbers 1-10
20. Why are floods considered relatively predictable events? What are some limits to their predictability?
depending on the area its located and the dryness or commonness of both cold and hot. Depending if its like in the ocean or way down low
21. What are the primary variables that affect the impact of a hurricane on the ecosystems in its path? weather and water heights
22. What are the conditions that support the development of tornadoes and what actions should be taken if you are in the path of a tornado?
cold and warm temperatures acting together or against each other. You should take cover and protect yourself from being close to a window, and be in a room with the least windows, and if there isn't a room with close to no windows, just go to the restroom.
23. What data and patterns do meteorologists use to measure the intensity and predict the impact of catastrophic events such as flooding, hurricanes and tornadoes? weather data and patterns and how warm or cool the temperature is.

Weathering, Erosion, & Deposition in Texas Ecoregions
24. What are the distinguishing abiotic and biotic factors for each of the ten Texas ecoregions? What are the geographic locations for each of the Texas ecoregion

1. Piney Woods
2. Post Oak Belt
3. Blackland Prairie
4. Gulf Coastal Plain
5. South Texas Plain
6. Edwards Plateau
7. Llano Basin
8. North Central Plains
9. High Plains
10. Mountains and Basins
25. How do factors like the chemical composition of the bedrock and characteristics of the climate affect the physical and chemical weathering processes of landforms? because it affects how far the weather or temperature can reach, making the temperature cold or hot, depending on the area
26. What evidence in sediment or bedrock can be used to interpret the erosional history of the rock? How smooth or thin it is, if there is any like fossils or something of the sort inside of it.
27. What evidence in sediment or bedrock can be used to interpret the depositional history of the rock? how many layers have been removed or replaced  
28. What evidence of weathering, erosional and depositional processes can be cited as characteristic features in the various Texas ecoregions?

Human Activity/Watersheds
29. What is a watershed?area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place.
30. What is the source of groundwater? rain
31. How can human activity contaminate or deplete water resources?By having pollution, it worsens the quality of the water and how much help it can do for Earth. Once it touches the water, it deepens the severity into it, making it unuseful.
32. What is point source and non-point source pollution?
Point-A point source of pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution.
Non-point- Non-point source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. 
Brain Pop: Humans and the Environment

Our Solar System
33. How does proximity to the Sun contribute to a planet’s temperature and ability to support life? It contributes to how much warmth we receive and how much we don't receive. If the temperature was too hot, there wouldn't be able to have any life because it would burn you it was so hot. But if the temperature was too cold, it would be too freezing so then it would freeze everything, unable to create life.
34. Water is necessary for life as we know it. What evidence is there that water may exist now or may have existed at one time on other celestial bodies?
Widespread deposits of minerals that can only form in the presence of water have been found by rovers
35. How does the presence and composition of an atmosphere help to determine a planet’s surface temperature? Determining by how the elements work, if it freezes, burns off, or changes physical structure, you can tell if it has been mostly hot, warm, just right,or just down right freezing cold.
36. What effects do Earth’s magnetic field (magnetosphere) and the ozone layer have on Earth’s ability to support life? the radiation charges or ionizes the air in the upper atmosphere. The charged air conducts and acts like a wire through a magnetic field which shields the earth from other particles and rays

To Infinity & Beyond
37. If space is an airless vacuum, how do astronauts breathe?astronauts breathe with air/oxygen tanks
38. How do astronauts survive the extreme temperatures of space? space suits are designed to reflect 90% of the sun's light, so very little heat can go in.
39. How are astronauts protected from micrometeoroids during a space walk?they toughen space suit gloves which makes them stronger to resist it.
40. What effect does a “weightless environment” have on humans?
eyes: angle of view drops from 10 degrees to 15 degrees
bones: bones become softer due to muscle loss . Large quantities of calcium, in particular, are lost.
41. How do astronauts move around and do daily activities in space?
by cleaning themselves and cleaning their teeth, by moving around, and trying to keep control of how to eat food so that it doesn't float everywhere
42. How do astronauts communicate with each other and with a mission team on Earth?with light and electromagnetic radiation

Unit 3: Ecology

43. What are the various components of an ecosystem?organisms, producers, and consumers.
44. In what ways do the components of an ecosystem interact? by eating each other, or gaining energy by eating
45. How does biodiversity help sustain populations of organisms?
by not eating the same thing every time, so that one population doesn't die quickly if it is ever overpowered
46. In what ways does the ecology of a place change over time?
It gets more advanced and adapts more quickly to the environment, has more or less qualities to let them survive for a longer time than ancestors.

47. What is the Sun’s role in the process of photosynthesis?
giving producers light to grow and gain energy, to then pass on to consumers
48. What type of energy conversion occurs during the process of photosynthesis?
solar energy to chemical energy
49. What are the products and reactants in the process of photosynthesis? 6 CO2(gas) + 12 H2O(liquid) + photons → C6H12O6(aqueous) + 6 O2(gas) + 6 H2O(liquid) 
50. Why is photosynthesis necessary for life on Earth? so that we will have energy to more around and keep blood flowing, have energy to keep the miracle of life going on, primarily because we need the suns energy to give to plants to pass on to us and other organisms
51. How is photosynthesis observed?under lab conditions by placing a plant in water containing dissolved gases, the plant will remove carbon dioxide from the water as it photosynthesizes, reducing carbon dioxide concentrations in the water, and raising the pH of the solution.
Cycling of Matter
52. What processes are involved in the cycling of matter within living systems? by compositing, or decomposers decomposing matter
53. How does the essential element carbon cycle through living systems?
Photosynthesis, respiration and combustion.
54. How does the essential element nitrogen cycle through living systems?by man using industrial processes (fertilizer factories)
55. How does water cycle through living systems? by drinking and eating it through food and by the water cycle
56. What organisms, found in the soil, aid in the cycling of matter?

Flow of Energy
57. What are the diļ¬€erent parts of a food chain? the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and etc.
58. How does the flow of energy transform in a food chain? by eating organisms that have gained energy by other sources
59. What is a food web? many food chains put together to form a larger example and different varieties that certain organisms devour
60. How are organisms in a food web dependent on one another? For food and energy
61. How does the flow of energy change in an energy pyramid?
By the more farther the food is from its primary consumer, or the producers energy, the less energy you gain

Unit 4: Heredity

62. How can heredity be observed? By DNA and traits such as hair color and eye color
63. Why are some inherited traits not observable? because they aren't physical or emotionally
64. How are traits inherited from parents to offspring? By the genes located in a sperm and egg
65. Why is there variation between different offspring from the same parents? because each sperm and egg is different, so they are never going to be exact replicas, there are going to be variations
66. How have the principles of heredity been used for domesticating animals and plants? by putting them together by themselves so that there is no other breed combined with the other to form a specific breed type

67. What are some reproductive differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? 
sizes and the eukaryotic cells are said to be the only one with a nucleus
68. How do offspring from asexual reproduction compare to offspring from sexual reproduction? by either being replicas, or having different genes
69. Are the offspring of asexual reproduction uniform or diverse? uniform
70. Are the offspring of sexual reproduction uniform or diverse? diverse

Dichotomous Keys
71. How do scientists organize life forms? with a dichotomous key
72. How do scientists use differences and similarities to identify life forms? by knowing how many legs or arms and comparing it o animals already known to find similarities
73. What is a dichotomous key? a key that helps to understand what kind of animal you are looking for

Variation, Natural Selection, & Selective Breeding
74. How does an adaptation give a survival advantage? by living longer, or by having an advantage to what is coming
75. How do environmental changes affect populations? by killing if too cold, or killing if too warm, depends on accommodations that represent the animal's habits or habitat
76. How are organisms adapted to an environment? by having relations with others tat have already adapted, passing it on to others and adapting
77. What biotic and abiotic factors influence adaptations of species?
soil, water, animals, plants, like water animals or land animals

Unit 5: Living Systems

Cell Organelles
78. What are organelles?Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
79. How does the nucleus help with the function of cells? By controlling its activities
80. How can the structure and function of the cell wall in plant cells be compared to that of the cell membrane? by protecting what comes in and out
81. What three structures are found in the plant cell but not in an animal cell? What are their functions?
82. What is the primary function of the cell membrane, mitochondrion, and the cytoplasm?
83. Chloroplasts capture and absorb light energy in what life process?

Cell Functions
84. What are the three main ideas of the cell theory?
85. How do cells provide nutrients to the entire cell?
86. How is metabolism created and how does it work in an organism?
87. What is cellular respiration?
88. How do plant cells convert sunlight into oxygen and energy for consumption?

Internal and External Stimuli
89. What is the differences between a stimulus and a response?
90. How does changing an external stimulus affect how an organism will respond?
91. In what ways does an organism's body respond to maintain homeostasis?
92. How do organisms respond internally when unknown pathogens invade the body?

Levels of Organization
93. How do cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms perform together?
94. How are cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms different?
95. What are the similarities and differences between plants and animals at all levels of organization?

Body Systems
96. What is the function of the circulatory system?
97. What is the function of the respiratory system?
98. What is the function of the skeletal system?
99. What is the function of the muscular system?
100. What is the function of the digestive system?
101. What is the function of the excretory system?
102. What is the function of the reproductive system?
103. What is the function of the integumentary system?
104. What is the function of the nervous system?
105. What is the function of the endocrine system?
106. What is the function of the immune system?

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Physical & Chemical Changes in the Digestive System

Physical & Chemical Changes in the Digestive System

1. What are some examples of changes, that occur during digestion, produce a result that indicates a chemical change has occurred?

when food has entered your digestive system, your system releases a chemical that changes into one solid and liquid to get out of your body, so a chemical change has occurred.

2. The table provides information on the function of different digestive structures. Which of the digestive structures in the table can cause a chemical change to occur?
your stomach
3. What are some examples of physical changes that occur during digestion?

when your esophaugus changes the food into something smaller to go through your esophagus

4. What are some examples of chemical changes during digestion?

when your stomach releases an acid to break down the food you eat

5. Label each statement as a physical or chemical change during digestion:

a. Food gets squeezed into a different shape when passing through the esophagus-
b. Enzymes break down fat droplets into fatty acids and glycerol-
c. Starch is changed into disaccharide maltose in the small intestine-
d. Hydrochloric acid breaks down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the stomach-